What Is Amazon Relational Database Service?

Managed relational database service with a choice of six popular engines.

Default VPC and Default Subnets:

Why use Amazon RDS?:

  • Lower TCO because we manage critical administrative functions.

  • Automated hardware provisioning, database setup, patching, and backups.

  • Get more leverage from your teams.

  • Focus on the things that differentiate you.

  • Built-in high availability and disaster recovery across multiple data centers.

  • Enabled with a single API call or click of a button in the console.

  • Even a small startup can leverage enterprise-level availability, durability, and scalability.

  • Which RDS engine should we use?:

    Which instance type should we choose?

    T2 Family M4 Family R4 Family
  • Burstable instances
  • General-purpose instances
  • Memory-optimized instances
  • 1 vCPU/1 GB RAM > 8 vCPU 32 GB RAM
  • 2 vCPU/8 GiB RAM > 64 vCPU 256 GiB RAM
  • 2 vCPU/16 GiB RAM > 64 vCPU 488 GiB RAM
  • Moderate networking performance
  • High-performance networking
  • High-performance networking
  • Good for smaller or variable workloads
  • Good for running CPU intensive workloads (e.g., WordPress)
  • Good for query-intensive workloads or high connection counts
  • Monitor CPU credit metrics in Amazon CloudWatch.
  • T2.micro is eligible for free tier.
  • Which storage type should we choose?

    General purpose (GP2) Provisioned IOPS (IO1) Magnetic
  • SSD storage.
  • SSD storage.
  • Magnetic storage.
  • Maximum of 16 TB!.
  • Maximum of 16 TB!.
  • Maximum of 1 TB.
  • Leverages Amazon EBS Elastic Volumes.
  • Leverages Amazon EBS Elastic Volumes.
  • Supported for legacy databases.
  • IOPS determined by volume size.
  • Maximum of 40 K IOPS (20 K on SQL Server).
  • Minimum of 100 IOPS (below 33.33GiB).
  • Delivers within 10% of the IOPS performance 99.9% of the time.
  • Bursts to 3,000 IOPS (applicable below 1.3 TB).
  • High performance and consistency
  • Baseline of 10,000 IOPS (at 3.3 TB and above).
  • Affordable performance.
  • How do we decide between GP2 and IO1?
    Why am we not seeing 30 K IOPS?

  • GP2 is a great choice, but be aware of burst credits on volumes < 1 TB

  • Hitting credit-depletion results in IOPS drop—latency and queue depth metrics will spike until credits are replenished.

  • Monitor read/write IOPS to see if average IOPS is greater than the baseline.

  • Think of GP2 burst rate and PIOPS stated rate as maximum I/O rates.

  • Built-in high availability and disaster recovery across multiple data centers.

  • Enabled with a single API call or click of a button in the console.

  • Even a small startup can leverage enterprise-level availability, durability, and scalability.

  • How do we scale my database instance?

    Why am I not seeing 30 K IOPS?

  • Scale compute/memory vertically up or down.

  • Handle higher load to grow over time.

  • Lower usage to control costs.

  • New host is attached to existing storage with minimal downtime.

  • Scale up Amazon EBS storage (now up to 16 TB!).

  • Amazon EBS engines now support Elastic Volumes for fast scaling (now including SQL Server).

  • No downtime for storage scaling.

  • Initial scaling operation may take longer, because storage is reconfigured on older instances.

  • Can reprovision IOPS on the fly.

  • Maintenance and billing for Amazon RDS

    How do you maintain my database?

    How can I plan for it?

  • Any maintenance that causes downtime (typically only a few times per year) will be scheduled in your maintenance window.

  • Operating system or Amazon RDS software patches are usually performed without restarting databases.

  • Database engine upgrades require downtime.

  • Minor version upgrades—automatic or manually applied.

  • Major version upgrades—manually applied.

  • Version deprecations—three- to six-month notification before scheduled upgrades.

  • View upcoming maintenance events in your AWS Personal Health Dashboard

  • How am we charged for Amazon RDS?

  • Database instance (instance hours).

  • Combination of Region + instance type + database engine + license (optional).

  • Database storage (GB-mo).

  • Can be either provisioned (Amazon EBS) or consumed (Amazon Aurora).

  • Provisioned IOPS (IOPS-Mo) for IO1 storage type.

  • Database I/O requests (IOs) for Amazon Aurora and Amazon EBS magnetic-storage types.

  • Backup storage (GB-mo).

  • Size of backups and snapshots stored in Amazon S3.

  • No charge for backup storage up to 100% of total database storage.

  • Data transfer (GB-mo)

  • Uses AWS regional data-transfer pricing.

  • How do we understand my bill?

  • Amazon RDS charges are grouped by Region.

  • Instances are grouped by engine

  • Storage and backup charges are cross-engine.

  • Use AWS Cost Explorer for graphical comparison.

  • Use the AWS Cost & Usage Report for billing details.

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